Monday, 17 December 2012

A friend of mine posted a very wise comment, which is worth thinking on.

"We should be allowed weapons to defend ourselves from violent crimes when they happen."

"No, we should examine why these crimes happen in the first place, and try to understand what leads to them so we can prevent them from happening."

The answer is 'yes.' It's not an either/or proposition. To say otherwise is a false dichotomy in the name of political expediency." 

Friday, 7 December 2012

Monday, 3 December 2012

Disarming Hand guns, a quick technical guide.

I have covered firearm disarming techniques in my book. Obviously these are high risk techniques but if you are in a situation that may need them the alternatives are probably worse. A slim chance is better than no chance. The basic rule is “get out of the line of fire” and “control the weapon so you are do not re-enter the line of fire” Take the weapon or turn it against him if you can.

This post will cover some useful supplementary information on the workings of pistols  that may be useful for defensive purposes.

If a pistol is single action it must be cocked before the first shot can be fired. For most pistols this involves pulling back the hammer with your thumb. For an automatic pistol the movement of the slide will recock the hammer for subsequent shots. For a single action revolver or other non-automatic the hammer must be manually cocked for each shot. In short, with a single action pistol the hammer must be back for the gun to fire. If it is not, then it cannot fire, no matter how hard you pull the trigger. Watch a few movies and you will often see someone threatened or supposedly ready to fire with a single action with the hammer down!

For a double action pistol pressure on the trigger will cock the hammer and then let it drop. Many double action automatics let you either cock the hammer manually or fire by double action for the first shot. For second and subsequent shots the hammer stays back. Some automatics are “Double Action Only” (DAO). Many of these use internal strikers but some have external hammers and for these the hammer stays down after every shot. For a double action revolver the hammer stays down after every shot. The hammer can be manually cocked for single shots, which require less trigger pressure.  In short, double action weapons can fire with either the hammer back or down.

How can you tell if a weapon is single or double action? There is no hard and fast rule if you cannot reliably identify the weapon. Most modern revolvers are double action, unless they are based on older weapons like the Colt Peacemaker. Automatics may be either single action or double action. If you have to use an unfamiliar weapon your best bet is to manually cock it for the first shot.
Let us look at some common examples:

Colt M1911A1 aka Colt Government Model. Its variants and copies are easilly recognizable and nearly all of them are Single Action Automatics. The only exception I am aware of is some models of the Canadian Paraordinance pistols.

Browning Hi-power. One of the most widely produced handguns of all time. A Single Action Automatic.
Colt Peacemaker. A Single Action revolver. Basic design is used for some modern weapons such as the Ruger Blackhawk.

Beretta M92. A Double Action Automatic. Standard handgun of the US army and widely used by other armies, police forces and individuals.

A SIG P226. A Double Action Automatic. Like many modern pistols it looks a lot like the Browning High Power. Note position of the magazine eject button at the base of the trigger guard on this and the Beretta. The Browning and M1911A1 have ejects in the same place.
Walther P38. Double Action Automatic. Has a heel mounted magazine release.

Walther PPK. Double Action Automatic. Heel mounted magazine release. Many similar weapons exist, including the Russian Makarov pistol.

Smith and Wesson Model 10. Typical of a Double Action Revolver.

A Glock pistol. A popular Double Action Only Automatic design. Note that it does not have an external hammer!

Taurus Revolver. An example of a hammerless Double Action Only Revolver.
As the hammer of a revolver moves back, either by manual cocking or trigger pressure, the cylinder is turned by a mechanical linkage. The chamber that is in line with the barrel when the hammer is down will not be the next chamber to be fired. As the hammer goes back the next chamber moves into alignment with the barrel and will be fired as the hammer drops.  In an episode of “Maverick” James Gardner stops a six-gun firing by sliding a stick down the barrel. He knew the gunman would keep an empty chamber under the hammer, as was common practice then. The stick entered the chamber and prevented the cylinder revolving to bring a live round into position. Interesting and entertaining, but not exactly a practical technique. Revolver safety mechanisms have improved since then so carrying an empty chamber under the hammer is no longer necessary or common practice.

I have come across an idea that gripping the revolver cylinder will prevent a gun from firing. This works on the same principle. If the cylinder cannot rotate a fresh round cannot align and the hammer cannot move back. This would rather depend on how tightly you can grip but is worth trying if you can combine this with twisting and manoeuvring the weapon to redirect or remove it it is worth a try.

An automatic pistol does not have a cylinder that you can try to prevent turning but it does have a slide (or at least most models you are likely to encounter will). Part of the slide forms the rear part of the chamber, the bolt face. The bolt face has the business end of the firing pin. If the slide is pushed back even a few millimetres the chamber becomes unlocked and the firing pin cannot reach the round, and the gun cannot fire. If you grab an automatic try to move the slide back as you twist and realign the gun.

We started off talking about hammers. Preventing the hammer from moving forward will prevent the weapon firing but your success in doing this will depend on your relative position and the weapon type. If the hammer is back slipping your hand between it and the firing pin will prevent it from firing, but you will not be able to see the hammer condition if the gun is directed at you. If you can positively identify the weapon type as single action, such as a Colt M1911A1 or Peacemaker this may be worth trying. Combine this with gripping the slide/cylinder with your other hand and twisting the weapon. Holding the hammer of a double action gun down is probably not practical. You may be better off cocking the hammer yourself and trapping your hand between it.

Trying to control the hammer of a weapon is probably more practical if you can approach the weapon from the side or rear and is best combined with other techniques to remove or realign the weapon. That way if something goes wrong and the weapon still fires it is pointing in a harmless direction or at the gunman.

Ejecting the magazine is another potential technique. Most pistols have the magazine eject as a button near the base of the trigger guard. Many pocket pistols and/or pistols of german origin have a “heel catch” on the bottom of the butt. If you can reach this control when you grab the gun you may be able to eject the magazine. The catch is, some guns have magazine safeties and will not fire if the magazine is in place, while others will still be able to fire the chambered round. There is no hard and fast rule for telling if an automatic has a magazine safety or not, but at least if you eject the mag he only has one shot.

Sunday, 18 November 2012

Cowboy Figure Eight

                I have been reading up on knots again the past few days. Knots are a subject we have touched on a couple of times in this blog. I used a Fisherman’s Knot to create an adjustable lanyard for my kukri and a combination of Overhand knot and Fisherman’s Knot to create my Tenouchi. I have been debating whether to add a post or two dedicated to the subject of useful knots since it is a subject some people have trouble with.

            While researching I became aware that the following application for a Figure Eight knot was rather conspicuous by its absence on the internet. I came across this in the Time-Life Book on Cowboys. I no longer have the book but fortunately I had sketched it and scanned the sketch onto my computer when I cleared out a load of old papers a few years back. Playing with my favourite graphics program produced the image below.

            The application is to quickly tie off a lasso to a saddle horn, but the knot itself and how it is tied can be used in other contexts.

            The left end of the rope has been thrown around a steer or mustang and is about to come under a considerable load. The cowboy holds part of the lariat in his right hand near the green arrow. The rest of the lariat is on his left.

            The cowboy pulls the rope against the left side of the pommel using his right hand and then brings the free end of the rope over the top of the taunt rope, around the right side of the pommel and through the loop held by the right hand.

            This is quite a useful technique. I have noticed that with some cordage the knot will tend to slip if the free end is not further secured. The cowboy doubtless made a loop in the free end and slipped it over the horn to create a half hitch. Once the figure eight has taken the initial strain this is easy to do. Alternately a couple of half-hitches can be applied to the standing part.

            My original sketch, also showing another method of dally. The advantage of the figure eight is that it can be applied to a mast or tree where you could not throw coils over the top. It is easier to apply under strain than, say, a round turn and two half hitches.

Sunday, 11 November 2012

New iPod and Playlist

            One of my favourite pieces of technology is my iPod. Simple in concept, the iPod really has changed how people enjoy music, especially if you grew up with the Sony Walkman and Portable disc player type devices. I can carry every piece of music I own with me, and using shuffle I never know what will be played next, but know it will be something I like.

            What has my iPod to do with self-defence? Not much really, sometimes it is nice to just enjoy the music.

            I had a 30Gb “iPod Video” that has served me well for a number of years. I do not recall when exactly I brought it but this model came out in 2005, which sounds about right. The headphones it came with broke on me after a few years, which lead me to discover that the sound could be so much better with alternate headphones.

In the past few weeks it has become obvious that the headphone socket has worn out, so I only get sound in both earpieces if I lean against the plug. My girlfriend told me to go along to the Apple store to see what could be done, so I did.

Apparently my model is now classed as “Vintage” and being well out of warrantee could not be repaired. I was given a 10% trade-in on any new model.

The only thing I had used my old iPod for was playing music, so had no interest in something that could take photos, access the internet and play games for an increased price tag. For that reason my choice was the 6th Generation iPod Classic.

Someone at Apple has been very smart here, realizing that change for change’s sake is not necessarily a good thing. The Classic works and indeed looks a lot like my old model. The main difference is that it now has a 160Gb memory and the facing is made from aluminium rather than plastic. It seems to hold a charge better too and apparently the battery life has been extended to 36 hours. I have heard talk that Apple intend to discontinue the Classic in favour of the iPhone and iPod Touch. I hope that is not the case. There will always be a market for a music player that mainly just plays music.

I had expected the guys at the Apple store to transfer the content of my old iPod onto my new, but this service was not available. I had to wait a while until I could find time to make sure everything I had on my old iPod was on the copy I keep on an external Hard Drive.

Because it is so familiar setting up my new iPod was very simple. I copied my backup files into iTunes and then onto the iPod. 5,659 songs at 21.2Gb took a while though.

In fact the main difference I found was more to do with iTunes itself. The only playlist I have ever used are “Recently Added” and “Least Played”. These were standard options on my old iPod but I could not find them on the new model. I searched on the internet on how to create these using “Smart Playlist” but most of the explanations I could find were not satisfactory. As is often the case with Apple, the solution was a lot simpler than you think. Since correct information on how to create these particular playlists is hard to find I thought I would put it up on here to benefit those who have brought my book or read the blog.

The simple method is:- Open “New Smart Playlist”. In the top left corner there is a section saying something like “Obey rule”. Untick this box. Go down to the line that says “Limit to” with a number beside it. Set this number to how big you want your playlist. I set mine to 250 items. Right beside this is a box that says “Random”. Open the drop down menu and change Random to either “Most Recently Added” or “Least Often Played”. Name your playlist and you are done. Took me several hours of looking through webpages to find that!

Tuesday, 6 November 2012

Shark Night

            There are things in life that you want to learn, and there are things in life that you need to learn. You may not have a desire to know how to stop arterial bleeding, but it is something you should know.
If you look very closely there is a shark in this picture
            The other night I was watching a movie called “Shark Night”. Now, I enjoy a good creature feature but cannot say I was impressed by this one.
            In the movie there is a scene where the character “Beth” (Katharine McPhee, above) conceals a knife in the back of her panties. She uses the knife to stab the evil redneck. In the movie, the redneck swears and his mate laughs and says “Scars show character”. The shoulder wound doesn’t seem to bother the redneck much and they feed Beth to the sharks. I could not help but think that if Beth had known a bit about combat anatomy, as described in my book she might have known to drive the blade into the spot beneath the redneck’s ear or into his kidney. If she had read the sections on knife use she might have known enough to keep her blade and use it against the other redneck. OK, the other redneck has a pistol, but at that range she might had had a chance rather than no chance at all. If she had read the book she would have known about gaining the outside gate and could have used the first redneck as a shield.
            Most people don’t want to know how to use a knife against another human being and that is to their credit. Most will hopefully never need to. But some of them will, and knowing how to defend yourself with likely available weapons or how they may be used against you comes under “should know” rather than “want to know”.

            Visit the preview page for my book and invest in a copy. It might save your life, and not just against shark-fixated rednecks.

The Books


Monday, 5 November 2012


            Today is Guy Fawkes’ Night, a time for fireworks. Of course, fireworks have actually been going off since before Halloween. There are also likely to be fireworks for the next week or so. The Hindu festival of lights, Diwali is nearly upon us. Its proximity to November 5th means that the modern festival of lights now includes fireworks.

          Although there will be firework displays tonight many individuals and local councils chose to schedule theirs over the last weekend. Over the last two days fireworks have been going off sporadically. Some people have even been setting them off during the daylight, which seems pretty daft.

            Just once I’d like to see everyone keep their fireworks until a scheduled hour, and then the whole city let off everything they have all at once. Fill the whole sky with light and colour. That would be a sight to see.

Sunday, 4 November 2012

Phoenix Eye Fist

            Further on the topic of Phoenix-eye fist.
            On the left is a twisting punch viewed from the front. Note that the hand starts off open and is closed on its way to the target to create greater initial speed. Also note how the non-punching left hand maintains a constant guard. Initially the palm defends the right side but in 5A it becomes mainly a left side defence as the extended punching arm moves into a position where it can cover the right side.

            The right side of the scan shows a punch from the side, but in this instance the non-twisting variant. Note that in photo 6A the arm is not fully straightened. In fact it can be seen that forearm, hand and the proximal bone of the finger form a smooth curve to allow an uninterrupted flow of force.

            Image scanned from “Phoenix Eye Fist” by Cheong Cheng Leong and Don F. Draeger.

The Books


Thursday, 1 November 2012

Folding Principle counter to the Scissors Block

            This is a quick follow-up to my recent Halloween themed posts. In “How to Survive a Slasher Movie –the Sequel” I detailed some of the proposed defences against an overhead attack. In keeping with the theme we were assuming a knife in icepick grip, but these discussions are equally valid against a club, lead pipe or many other weapons.

            If you refer back to that post I will draw you attention to the observation that many of these proposed counters seem to assume that once the attack has been blocked the attacker will leave his arm stationary long enough to apply a lock or execute a throw. Assumptions are often dangerous.
            For example, let us once again consider the cross-block. I recently read that “the scissors block is good for when there is a flurry of punches” –which I have to disagree with. A flurry of punches is one of the best ways to defeat this move. The scissors block may stop the first blow, but you have effectively occupied both your arms and obscured your own vision while leaving your flanks and lower body exposed.

            Let us consider an overhead knife or club attack. Will the attacker leave his arm up after his strike is stopped? Many fighters, including those that have read my book will be familiar with the “Folding principle”. In this context it means that once the attack is blocked the arm will relax, fold at the nearest joint and re-attack on another line. In the above examples the attacker would bend his elbow and then make a fast lateral strike under the defenders arms and into his side or belly.
            Another thing to consider is that most attackers have two arms. If my overhead strike with my right was blocked as shown above one of my first reactions would be use my left palm to knock his arms off to my right. If you want to think of this in esoteric eastern terminology my blocked arm goes from Yang to Yin, allowing the other side of my body to become Yang and strike/deflect/parry. The Yin-state right arm can of course fold so as I am knocking his guard aside and him off balance my knife/club/fist is coming in the other direction to hit his abdomen.

Wednesday, 31 October 2012

A final post for Halloween.



            A few years back I am watching a movie with my then newish girlfriend.

            “We should go camping!” she suddenly announces.

            “Are you not paying attention here? The killer always goes after the young couple in the tent!”

            “We will take our Kukris! When Jason turns up, Ha! No more Jason!”

            How can you not love a woman like that?

Edwardian(?) self-defence

            I came across this on scribd.
            How to deal with a hoodlum using a Flying Mare. You can tell that he is a hoodlum since the bounder isn’t wearing a jacket.


            I’m sure some idiot will claim she was just asking for it dressed like that!

Something for Halloween

Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Some Quick Thoughts on Some Body Weapons.



            The palm-heel is probably one of the most useful body weapons that you have. It is a technique that nearly anyone can use, can apply great power and it useful for both hard and soft targets. Suppose you encounter an aggressor wearing a motorcycle helmet and an opening occurs for you to hit his head? If you use a punch there is a good chance you will damage your hand. Most people, however would be confident at striking the helmet with a palm heel and can probably hit with enough force to jar his neck or knock the attacker off balance. If you can do that, think how effective a palm-heel strike would be against his unarmoured jaw, kidney or top of the sternum.

            Palm-heel is one of your primary weapons and should be used whenever possible and practiced until its use is second nature.


            Hammer-fist is a somewhat neglected weapon in many martial arts but is one to master. Hammer-fist can be used in many of the applications usually suggested for a back-fist or knife-hand strike. It is more powerful and more versatile than a back-fist and easier to use effectively than a knife-hand. Its larger impact area means that it is often recommended for applications where permanent injury is undesirable. Many Police officers are taught to use the hammer fist or palm-heel instead of the knife-hand when striking the brachial plexus or vagus nerve, for example.


            The main applications of the knife-hand are against the limbs, neck, kidneys and between the ribs. In many manuals the knife hand is shown with the fingers apparently straight and the thumb sticking out. I suggest you experiment with the palm slightly cupped and the thumb tip placed just behind the middle joint of the first finger.

            Practice knife-hand by striking it against the palm of your other hand. This also conditions that hand for palm-heel striking.


            Back-fist is a staple of many martial arts but is in fact a somewhat limited technique. Hammer-fist is an easier, more versatile and more powerful technique and generally more useful. To use back-fist effectively requires “Loose wrist, Tight fist”. The hand needs to be clenched tightly on impact but the wrist needs to be relaxed to produce and in and out snapping action. Striking area is the first two knuckles and if you are relaxed enough the front rather than the back of the knuckles will hit.

            Because it is a relatively low powered technique for most of use it is not good against large volume soft targets like the torso. Main soft targets are the nose and the larynx. Most targets for the back-fist are boney areas such as the mind-point of the jaw, eyebrow temple, sternum, philtrum etc. Since it applies a relatively small bone against larger bones good technique is essential. In most self-defence techniques where you see a back-fist used see if a hammer-fist can be used instead.

One-Knuckle Fist.

            One-knuckle striking techniques such as Phoenix eye fist or middle-knuckle fist are seen in many martial arts. These techniques are best used with a circular rather than linear punching technique, particularly against harder target areas. Bend your wrist slightly so that the forearm, hand and promimal phalanx form a smooth curve.

Thursday, 25 October 2012

Praying Mantis Video

            A rather nice video on some Praying Mantis techniques.

            The Mantis Hook and Pluck technique are both covered in my book, along with other principles seen here. The one modification I would make here is to use a palm-heel strike rather than a closed fist punch to follow the elbow pluck (Tsai). Heads are hard and boney and better attacked with a palm-heel rather than a fist.


            Caught the movie Ong-Bak last night. I know it has been out nearly a decade, but I’d not seen it before. Very entertaining and well worth a watch if you enjoy a well done action movie.


Early morning exercise.

            Today will be a long day. Had to be in to work early, will be staying late, and will be in early again tomorrow. The mornings are getting colder and darker, so getting out of bed and doing some exercise before leaving for work is a test of will-power. Will-power is a crucial element in getting fitter and is something you develop along with your muscles, so not only did I manage to squeeze some exercising in this morning, but I added a bit more.

            My recent cold and needing to eat more has undone most of the progress I had made on reducing the waistline so this morning I tried an exercise I don’t think I have attempted since I was a schoolboy :- touching my toes! Much to my surprise I could do a most acceptable toe touch without any noticeable knee bend. I went on to do a full set of thirty so I guess my gut is not as big a problem as I feared.

            On a hard day like today such minor accomplishments are to be savoured!

Wednesday, 24 October 2012

Surviving a Slasher Movie -the Sequel!

           In keeping with the time of year I thought that I would examine counters to another staple of slasher movies (and self-defence books!) the Overhead Knife attack, sometimes called the “John Wayne Indian Attack”. As I discuss in my book, this is not a particularly good way to use a knife but is often shown in self-defence books since it allows the author to show clever countermoves. In the movies it makes for a nice dramatic shot, as can be seen in this rogue’s gallery. While the Overhead has many flaws as an offensive technique it is one that does get used in real life. Many domestic murders are apparently committed using this attack, where passion tends to override technique. The same basic action is also used for club or machete attack and the same counters can be employed. (that is why the photo of Jason is here, and I couldn’t find one of him with a knife, although he has used this attack). Knowing how to counter attacking action is therefore quite useful.
            First up is the counter that you will see suggested in the majority of self-defence books, which is known by various names such as the “reverse armlock”. The attack is blocked with the left arm, often with the left hand grasping the knife wrist, then the right arm comes up behind, grips the defender’s other arm and executes a lock that can be turned into a throw.
            Here we see another view of the same technique from another angle. This photo is taken by Combat Judo by Robert L. Carlin. Carlin at least has the sense to mention that such an attack would be relatively unlikely from a trained enemy.
            Yet another view, this time executed from an overhead cross block. If you have read my book you will know about the flaws of this technique, particularly against edged weapons. While this provides a stronger initial block than using just the left hand it does leave your head and body in the path of the attack should the block fail.
            An alternate counter, again from the Cross block. If the attacker had be stabbing in an ice pick grip his sword bayonet would have probably reached the defender’s face! The follow through of moving to the outside and attacking the arm is worth noting, and would have been possible if the defender had instead used an outward parry with his right arm, taking himself out of the line of attack.
            The “Miller method” is from Biddle’s “Do or Die”. The attack is blocked with the left arm and then right is passed behind the stopped knife arm, hooked over it and used to make a throw. Unlike the Reverse Armlock the two arms are not used together. One arm stops the attack and then the other throws the attacker.
            In “Kill or Get Killed” Biddle’s contemporary, Rex Applegate was rightly critical of many of the above methods. He felt that trying to catch the knife wrist in your hand, as many manuals suggested was too prone to failure. A powerful blow, as this was likely to be would overcome the thumb. Using the forearms to block could numb the arm and also be prone to failure. Many of these methods rely on initially using the left arm, which Applegate pointed out is less co-ordinated for most individuals. Add into this equation that knives are often used in poor light conditions so the defender may not be able to see the arm well enough to execute a fancy counter.

            As can be seen, Applegate’s preferred method involves using the right arm in an outward parry, taking the defender to the outside gate. Various counters follow from this position. You can use the arm level technique shown in the second cross block illustration. You can punch with your left below his armpit or into his kidney. Or you can throw your left hand over his face and throw him back over your left leg.

            In fact, I would recommend that since you will be powering your right outward parry with your waist you use the same action to raise your left arm too and swing it in toward the aggressor. Applegate illustrates an outward parry and finishing on the attacker’s right side. You may not have room to do this so also practice an inward parry with the right too. Use your principles of Long Har Ch’uan here too. As you move the attacking arm to your left (swinging your body out from under the attack) bring your left arm up vertically to take over the parry. This will free up your right hand, which will be in a good position for a hammer-fist or knife hand attack to the attacker’s head or neck.

Monday, 22 October 2012

Surviving a Slasher Movie

            A couple of years back I was watching “True Blood” with my relatively new girlfriend. I had not paid much attention to the show in the past but Caroline had got me into it and I am now a fan.

            We were watching the episode where Sookie realizes that Rene is the killer, and Rene realizes that Sookie realizes etc. As you can see, she grabs a shotgun, only to find Rene has unloaded it. Wisely, Sookie realizes an empty gun is still a pretty solid club and knocks him down while he is feeling clever. She then skips over the fallen killer and runs out into the sun, so Vampire Bill can save her. The reason I remember this scene so well is as Sookie runs for the door my girlfriend exclaimed

“No! Hit him again you fool!”

            I have to admit, I looked at her somewhat bemused and revelled in the fact that my lady had a very sensible head on her shoulders and could probably look after herself better than many.

            It being October, I have had an urge to watch horror films, particularly slasher pics, since Horror channel is doing a season of them.

            Killers in these movies often seem to trip over. Jason falls and stumbles a few times in Friday the 13th Part 2. Ghostface in the Scream movies not only falls and gets knocked down, but even knocked unconscious.

            If you find yourself in a situation similar to Sookie or any of these other heroines, remember the Broncho kick. In the words of WE Fairbairn in “Get Tough”:-


Your opponent is lying on the ground.

1. Take a flying jump at your opponent, drawing your feet up by bending your knees, at the same time keeping your feet close together (Fig. 11)

2. When your feet are approximately eight inches above your opponent's body, shoot your legs out straight, driving both of your boots into his body, and smash him.

Note. - It is almost impossible for your opponent to parry a kick made in this manner, and, in addition, it immediately puts him on the defensive, leaving him only the alternative of rolling away from you in an attempt to escape. Further, although he may attempt to protect his body with his arms, the weight of your body (say 150 pounds), plus the impetus of your flying jump (say another 150 pounds), will drive your heels into your opponent's body with such terrific force that you will almost certainly kill him. Steel heel-plates on your boots will make his attack even more effective.

Practice this kick on a dummy figure or on the grass as in Fig. 12.”

            In “Kill or Be Killed” Rex Applegate prefers that kicks against a downed target be made with just one foot, since there is a risk of losing your balance if landing on a target with both feet. On the other hand the jump into the air can generate tremendous power and is a good way of convincing the smaller framed person they have sufficient power to take a larger attacker out of the fight. A compromise may be to use the leap to generate power and attempt to land with one foot on the ground and the other impacting the attacker.

            If more women knew this simple technique Slasher movies would be a lot shorter!